The AP US History Exam is the closest thing we've got to a national standard for history knowledge (history teachers chime in if I'm missing something). Now, the original premise here is that passing the AP exam in high school merits college credit, so AP History isn't even the measure of what a high school graduate ought to know, it is a measure of what a college freshman should know after a semester of collegiate level US History. Here's a Google Books except from a test prep book by a major publisher (the overall quality of which I can' vouch for) summarizing what a student should try to remember about Dred Scott while walking into the exam.
You can try to extrapolate back from that what a reasonable standard for a freshman level high school history class might be.
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